Clemens Messerschmid – Full Version of the Interview by Charlotte Silver (Electronic Intifada)
A water station at the West Bank settlement of Kedumim, June 2016.
Palestinian city parched after Israel cuts water supply. Read more: Amira Hass, Haaretz
– AN INTERVIEW WITH GERMAN WATER EXPERT CLEMENS MESSERSCHMID
1. Is scarcity of water in the area driving the water crisis in the West Bank? Or is the scarcity engineered? If so, why?
Of course there is no water scarcity in the West Bank, at least not what that means in the rest of the world. What we suffer from is induced scarcity – it’s called: the occupation. This is a regime imposed on Palestinians immediately after the war in June 1967. Israel rules through military orders, which have the direct and intended result of keeping Palestinians “short” in water terms. It is not an ongoing gradual dispossession as with land and settlements, but was done in one sweep by Military Order # 92, as early as August 1967.
Practically, what the West Bank – in absence of the dried-up and inaccessible Jordan River – possesses is groundwater, ample amounts of it. You probably have seen the poster [link]: Ramallah has more rain than London, Jerusalem more than Berlin, Nablus more than Paris. Especially high rain is in Salfit – now known for especially hard water cuts… And the West bank karstic carbonate rocks have phenomenally high recharge rates from rain. The West Bank is blessed with a treasure of groundwater. This is its curse, because Israel targeted this immediately after taking control over the “shtakhim” – and its water beneath…
What we need is simple: Wells, groundwater wells to access this treasure. The most important Military Order is No. 158, which forbids exactly this, drilling, together with ANY other water works! And I mean any! Springs, pipes, networks, pumping stations, irrigation pools, water reservoirs, simple rainwater harvesting cisterns, which collect the rain falling on one’s roof – everything is forbidden, by default (or rather not “permitted” by the military, the Civil Administration). Even repair and maintenance of wells requires military permits! And we don’t get them. Full stop.
Just one number here: The number of wells permitted in the main basin, the so-called Western aquifer since 1967 until Oslo – is: zero. And from Oslo until today: zero. As simple as that. It is a simple case of hydro-apartheid – far beyond any regime of world history that I am aware of.
2. Israel has increased the amount of water it sells Palestinians, but it is still not enough to prevent villages from running dry. Putting aside the fact that Israel’s control over the aquifer’s resources is very problematic, why won’t Israel sell the PA enough water?
Israel first of all has drastically REDUCED the amount of water. Otherwise, we would be happy. The very first thing was the Jordan River, which is now literally pumped dry at Lake Tiberias upstream (1). Access was barred immediately after the war (during the war). The amount of water Palestinians gained from the river in the past HALF CENTURY is exactly, precisely zero. Not a single drop.
Then of course, wells and groundwater are targeted. Israel not only imposed well quota, especially for agricultural wells – together with many incredibly harsh, even bizarre measures (2), it also routinely denies “permits” for much-needed repair of old wells from the Jordanian days, especially agricultural wells. A list of over 140 such wells has piled up and continues to grow, without any prospect of receiving such permits, except in a handful, very select and exceptional cases. That means: The number of wells – again, especially in the Western aquifer – is constantly shrinking. We now have much less wells than 1967! But this already such an old story that nobody mentions it. It’s not “news”. The water accessible under the occupation has shrunk; drastically shrunk. This is the first thing to say.
Under Oslo, this curse called peace process, this trend continued as if nothing had changed, because: Nothing HAS changed indeed. In Oslo-II the “existing use” of wells and springs under Palestinian control was determined as 118mcm/yr. Another slightly more than 100 mcm were promised during the interim phase (i.e. until 1999). Palestinians should have had access to 220mcm by 1999. How much do we have now? Less than 100mcm annually, one year 93mcm, another year 83 mcm, etc. (3). But the trend is solid – less and less water under Palestinian control. Or to be precise: Under Palestinian access, because Israeli control is 100% right from MO#92 onwards.
Now, the only thing that has increased is the dependency on purchase from the expropriator, Israel, Mekorot. This is reported over and over in the Western press, because it is the point Israel stresses. See how benevolent we are? See what a blessing the occupation is? We “give” them more and more water and they are still not showing gratitude…
So, yes, since Oslo, purchase from Mekorot has grown steadily, to now around 60mcm/a (4). Ramallah now receives 100% of its water from Mekorot. Not a drop comes from the single own well field we have – near Ein Samia. The water from there has hardly changed at all under Oslo. It is now not even enough to supply the villages around Ramallah. This gives you an impression how rapid we advance towards a state (“ready for a state in 2 years” Salam Fayyad), if one state function was defined as sustainable, reliable water supply… We are failing constantly, on a colossal scale. That’s the story of the peace process in a nutshell.
The supply of villages by Israel was not done as a favour. It was initiated by Sharon in 1980, when rapid settlement growth was starting. Large supply lines were crossing the West Bank. Mekorot bought the entire water infrastructure (under army control since 1967) for one Sheqel. The water supply was “integrated”, in order to make the occupation irreversible, but that’s another story. What is important here and goes to the core of your question, is the structural apartheid, cemented and cast in iron in these pipes. A small settlement is supplied via 8 inch, 12 inch, 16 inch transmission pipe. A split-off pipe then runs to the surrounding villages with a multiple population (5 times, 10 times, 50 times the population), but with only 4 inch, 2 inch, even half inch of diameter! Physical apartheid – planned, built, delivered. Or maybe this comparison is wrong and misleading: as one South-African delegation commented some years back: “Israel is giving apartheid a bad name”.
Israel is very happy with Oslo, because now Palestinians – water undertakings, municipalities, village councils and the PA – are “responsible” for supply. Responsible but without a shred of sovereignty over resources. Catch 22. And Israel, Mekorot has become the single-largest water supplier in the West Bank. Uri Shani (Water Authority of Israel – IWA) was right, when he declared: “I am the de-facto Palestinian water regulator.”
In principle, I am not even against water trading, selling and buying of water. We live in a globalised world. I do not want to reverse that. If the deal is fair, is affordable, is reliable, etc. None of this is the case here.
We are at the mercy and at the whim of secret, unilateral decisions of low level decision makers at Mekorot, at the Civil Administration, etc. And here we finally come to the current so-called water crisis, which is not a crisis! A crisis is a sudden change, a new turn or a turning point in development. The undersupply of Palestinians is desired, planned and carefully executed. The “summer water crisis” is the most reliable feature of the Palestinian water calendar. And the amount of annual rain (drought) has no bearing whatsoever on the occurrence and scale of that “crisis”.
The single factor that seals the fate every summer is the attitude of the “de facto” Palestinian water regulators, be it the IDF, Civil Administration, IWA, etc. When demand rises in settlements, we have to cut supply to villages. It is really that simple, a routine matter of distributing a finite amount of resource over two entities – one privileged and dear to the hearts of such regulators and the other right less, defenceless, unworthy. I should stress that however routinely this occurs, in each and every single case, it is a conscious decision by some bureaucrat or office in Israel or the settlement of Bet El (5). Someone has to go to the field and turn down the valve at the split-off to the Palestinian village. This, like every summer, was done in early June. Hence – water crisis in the West Bank.
3. Are the cuts that Amira Hass published routine during the summers?
Yes, precisely. They occur every summer. I am not aware of any exception. Only the degree oscillates and depends on many factors unrelated to Palestinians. After a dry winter, Israel “needs” more water for irrigation. Or in a certain area, settlements have grown rapidly, or in another area, water pipes have not grown at the same pace, etc. The one and only constant is the logic of discrimination and unworthiness that informs the Israeli commanders, reliably, every summer (and winter).
4. What factors may be contributing to the water cuts this year?
Let’s start with some soft factors: Early June this year happened to be the start of Ramadan. This made water cuts especially obvious, painful and humiliating on the subjective Palestinian level.
More objectively, it seems, settler demand indeed has risen drastically since last years. This is what the Israeli Water Authority (IWA) found during internal meetings. 20 to 40% higher demand is quite remarkable. A. Kushnir from IWA can explain this only by increased settler irrigation – not in the Jordan valley, where this occurs since the early 1970s, but up in the mountains of the Northern West Bank, their “Samaria”, around Salfit, Nablus, etc..
According to data presented by Alexander Kushnir, the Water Authority’s director general, the large expansion in agriculture in the settlements has led to a rise in consumption this year.
“A sharp increase in consumption [in the settlements], estimated at 20 percent to 40 percent, was registered in comparison to last year,” Kushnir says. “Such a sharp increase at the beginning of the irrigation season can only be explained by increased agricultural requirements.”
Amira Hass, 9 July 2016 (6)
So, in this respect, we do have a particularly strong cut in allocations to Palestinians. It should be stressed here that Palestinians are not treated even as customers in this case, where they have been rendered clients: Nobody informs them. Nobody needs to give an explanation. There is of course no appellation, not joint decision, no “right” to any quota – even if agreed upon in painful extended negotiations. It’s called: Occupation. Institutionalised lack of rights, legalised lawlessness… It’s the eleventh commandment: “Thou shalt serve your settlers”
This of course comes after the tenth commandment:
“Thou shalt covet your neighbour’s water and that of his wife and children, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour – for they are male or female servants…”
Exodus 20:17, updated version, 1967.
Remarkably, we can note that Israel is in fact slightly embarrassed when occasionally some small, distorted parts of this story make into the international press. Their immediate response was: A) it’s not true. B) It was an accident – some pipe broke and needed a few days of repair. Of course this cheap excuse does not carry very far – it cannot explain the differential supplies to illegal settlers and occupied population. But I find this immediate statement very informative on the mind set of an occupier: The only non-routine “disturbance” that comes to mind of such a bureaucrat or spokesperson is a technical mishap, a broken pipe. This is precisely because summer cuts are such a routine procedure – strictly business as usual as in the past 50 years of occupation.
Israel also immediately asserted that there was no such thing as supply cuts to Palestinians alone. To the contrary, settlers and Palestinians suffered from the same cuts. Now, this is simply a lie, broad, cheeky and loud. This may come to no surprise – after all, I would not like to be a position, where I would have to justify such cuts. Still, this lie has to be pointed out and noted.
Not all Israeli politicians are as well informed and as slick liars: The far-right wing Knesset member Bezalel Smotrich (ha-Bayit ha-Yehudi), said that not everyone should suffer from water shortages at the same degree: “Israelis’ needs should be met first” , thus not only spoiling the official story line of ‘painful cuts’ in the illegal colonies but also exposing his lack of knowledge – because in fact, he can sleep at ease: Settler needs ARE served first, reliably and continuously, by his centre and Zionist left wing colleagues and institutions. The surprise about both, his lack of knowledge and his unbridled racism may reduce a bit, when we take into account that his field of expertise and settlement is the annexed Syrian Golan…
5. When Palestinians run out of water, from whom do they buy water from (the trucks for example)?
Occupation means fragmentation. Oslo means bantustanisation. Therefore, we have no National Water Carrier that connects the whole West Bank, cities to cities, and villages to villages. Each town, each village has to struggle on its own, vis-à-vis a superior army. This is why the supply situation and also the ways to face and deal with shortages differ from area to area, from village to village, city to city. The most typical resort during imposed water cuts is the common Palestinian feature of water tankers – something that is of course entirely absent in Israel, or London, Paris, New York! Where do these tanker trucks get their water from? Some villages may have an accessible spring nearby; other villages’ springs are barred or taken over by Israeli settlers or more commonly the Israeli Parks Authority!(7) Some villages may have agricultural wells nearby. Sometimes the tanker driver finds his own source, sometimes the village council or municipality organises this. Some villages may drive to the next Palestinian well field. And then there is the presence of so-called filling points, about one dozen in the West Bank, supplied also by Mekorot. For years, Palestinian authorities have been asking for the minimal favour of at least increasing the number of such filling points. To no avail. It is an organised, stubbornly but resourcefully organised discrimination.
I could fill books with these different accounts. But it’s already too much. We are wasting millions of Dollars and thousands of hours with these daily routines of trying to square the circle and of making ends meet when it is already a done deal that, right from the start that the water – for one side – is not, cannot be and is not supposed to be enough. For a water manager (8) this is humiliating. Israel bogs us down at entirely useless, anachronistic, costly and especially: time-demanding routines. After all, and not only in water, occupation always is also the occupation of time!
6. How is it that people in present-day Israel are reportedly enjoying a [surplus of water] since the country has started using desalination, while its occupied people in the West Bank are left so thirsty. Even Israeli settlers have reportedly experienced water cuts.
To begin with your last question: Israel has claimed that settlers experienced the same cuts. A claim, at least in the case of Israel, is not the same as a fact. Just read the powerful eye witness account of Amira Hass in Haaretz.
But on your main question, it’s true, Israel 2-3 years ago for the first time declared itself a surplus water economy and its keen will to trade and sell more water with its neighbours – water, of course, which had to be expropriated from these exact neighbours in the first place. Since no water reaches the lower Jordan River, Jordan is forced to now buy water from Lake Tiberias, which by the way is of low quality (natural and increased salinity of the lake). Palestinians in the West Bank should leave the water under their feet alone. This belongs to Israel, which then will sell it back to them – but as we are discussing here: not even this is done reliably, at sufficient rates, affordable prices and in the times when most needed…
Frankly, I don’t know and cannot answer your question. Why this special, elevated and aggravated ire of Israel, not even to SELL enough water to the West Bank? In some areas, water is actively used as a weapon for ethnic cleansing, like in the Jordan Valley. Agriculture also was always targeted from day one of the occupation (see quote below). But this does not apply to the densely populated Palestinian towns and cities in so-called Area A. After 20 years, this still leaves me somewhat puzzled.
“There will be no development initiated by the Israeli Government, and no permits will be given for expanding agriculture or industry, which may compete with the State of Israel.”
Y. Rabin as defence minister in 1986
Another element is important to understand: Israel needs to constantly teach Palestinians a lesson, it is educating also in the water sector: Any water procurement, any drop delivered should be understood as a generous favour, as an act of mercy, not as a right. This is essential, both as a conscious lesson for Palestinians, as well as in the default logic of a half-century old occupier. I can only speculate and extrapolate from their actions (sometimes declarations): It seems that this logic has entered their blood stream. I doubt these officers or politicians or water regulators are even aware of it any longer.
But we should not exaggerate: The main story still is and remains the case of simple resource egoism by Israel, a material and all too obvious interest to control all water possible; a standard procedure and key characteristic of every colonialism, though to the best of my knowledge nowhere ever as harshly executed in world history as here and now by Israel.
Two more points here: Israel now blames Palestinians, no surprise, it’s their own fault. Why? Because Palestinians some years ago stopped cooperating within the so-called Joint Water Committee (JWC), installed in Oslo to continue the routines of the occupation under the disguise of cooperation (see above). More precisely: Palestinians demanded a reform, a re-structuring of the JWC and of course Israel refused to even discuss this idea… So, in the past years, the standard excuse is always the following: Well, if we still had the JWC, we could discuss this in the JWC – for example the current cuts of quota (- thank you!) This excuse is supplemented by the lie that without JWC, Israel is simply unable to expand water infrastructure! The lie is obvious – just look by how much settler supply infrastructure has expanded during these past years without JWC. The JWC always only fulfilled one purpose for Israel: To legalise settler water supply infrastructure – in each every single case during its existence and through Palestinian “approval” (which is a true Palestinian scandal) and at the same time to preserve full Israeli veto for any Palestinian project – remember the number of wells permitted and drilled in the Western Aquifer?(9) So, while I do not claim that Israel implemented the current water cuts because of the JWC, it certainly exploits this issue in its responses. But a slight element of punishment and teaching a lesson, which is so dear to the hearts of Israeli occupation management, may well be at work here too.
Yet your question remains. Israel has augmented water sales to the West Bank from 25mcm/yr in 1995 to now around 60mcm/yr(10). Why does it not sell much more? It certainly could afford it water-wise – it has a surplus of hundreds of mcm/a right now(11). One of the material issues I can detect is still the issue of price and therefore meaning of water! This is still unresolved and under negotiation. Because Israel wants the full desalination costs for water it sells back to Palestinians – or actually above desalination costs, because in Israel, the domestic water, by buying desal water, has to subsidize Israeli agriculture with its dirt cheap water prices. The West Bank thus subsidizes Israeli irrigation! You may understand that the PA is not keen on paying this price. More importantly however – we only speak of a few hundred million NIS a year, which is very little for Israel, but not for the West Bank – is the meaning that this price carries! Israel wants to end the debate over Palestinian water rights once and for all. Israel demands nothing short of a full Palestinian surrender. Palestinians should agree that the water under their feet does not belong to them, but forever to the occupier. This may sound bizarre, but remember the reality: Unlike in land and settlements, Israel already gained full control over all water in one sweep in 1967 (MO # 92)! Materially, Israel has nothing further to gain from that point on(12). So, if the most right-wing government ever wants to make its point, wants to make any point at all and deliver new achievements, it must go beyond the already established material control. Now is the time to deliver full Palestinian ideological and hydro-political surrender. This is why Israel is so angry about the stop of the JWC, although it did not change anything of the material reality on the ground. By demanding full desal prices, Palestinians would admit and agree to a new formula. “We have no water rights. We have all water we deserve. Blessed be the occupation! We now ask for the favour of purchasing “additional quantities” from our neighbour Israel. Drinking the Sea from Israeli plants, under Israeli control and at Israeli prices is the fulfilment of our national aspirations…” Do you understand the depth and implications of this statement?
A last point: The water-rich West Bank buys ever increasing amounts from Israel. But we have not spoken about the other half of the occupied territories – Gaza. Gaza, very much unlike the West Bank has no physical possibility of access to water. The confined and densely populated strip can never supply itself. Yet, Gaza does not get such water “deliveries”! Until last year, not even the 5 mcm agreed in Oslo, were “delivered” (sold) by Israel. Now, a tiny, cosmetic increase has been enacted. In a way you could interpret this differential treatment as an Israeli admission of the powerful hydrological reality – a certain degree of inter-dependence in terms of water resource distribution in the case of the West Bank: Israel receives the bulk of its water from the territories conquered in 1967 (including the Golan), a large chunk of which from the West Bank alone, but no drop from Gaza. This is simply a consequence of the “riparian position”, which means: the West Bank sits upstream, its groundwater flows into Israel; Gaza squarely sits downstream, no drop flows into Israel(13). Water-wise Gaza has no resource to offer. This is the same as with the main contested resource: Land. Hence, we find a very different approach to Gaza right from the start in 1967. Unlike in the West Bank, Israel in Gaza only reduced but never completely stopped all drilling activities. Israel had nothing to lose by new wells in the bottom-end, tiny and rather dry strip. Gaza is the ugly duckling of the water story.
Israel depends on (water from) the West Bank, and quite heavily. It does NOT depend on Gaza in any material form! This is expressed in another famous quote by Rabin short before Oslo: “I wish I could wake up one day and find that Gaza has sunk into the sea” (1992), two years before being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. I think this really illustrates Israel’s attitude towards Gaza, especially in water(14). In Oslo-II already and ever since Oslo, Israel demanded from Gaza to supply itself by its own means, i.e. through seawater desalination. Thus, this is not a new rationale, but the essence of Israel’s peace formula. Independent self-supply from within Gaza – though physically impossible – is the exact translation of this Israeli rationale of “Gaza sinking into the Sea”, onto the water sphere.
7. How have donor countries acted in all this? Have they defended (global minimal) water standards or have they affirmed and bolstered Israel’s control over the water resources in the occupied West Bank?
Unfortunately the latter! This is the most painful point for me. Not the cruelty of the occupier but the complete failure by the alleged friends and (water project) partners in the West. When Oslo started, we all were under the illusion that now a phase of catching-up development would start. Wells that were forbidden to be drilled for 28 years would finally be put in place. Catching-up very belatedly, because in each Indian village you will find a well – in most poor and dry countries, you will find too many wells, rather than too few. Not in occupied Palestine! Soon, we learnt that Israel in fact was never willing to allow and give such “permits … for expanding agriculture or industry, which may compete with the State of Israel” (Rabin 1986, as above), not even for much-needed minimum domestic consumption. Our well drilling projects first ran into delays, then were stuck and made no progress – or hardly any progress(15). What was needed then and now – and everybody knew this – was political pressure to extract at least the minimum well drilling permits guaranteed under Oslo-II(16). This pressure never came. Never did the EU or my German government issue even a public statement in which it “deplores” or “regrets” the obstructions in the water sector. This is a true scandal. Apart from very few exceptions, nobody, especially not the main stream media has asked the simple question how and where the billions of dollars of water project funds evaporated and with which success rate. I must repeat myself here: The achievement of international donor assistance in the water sector is twenty million cubic-metres less than before Oslo! There is hardly any example of development worldwide that sows such a clear-cut, such a colossal degree of failure.
But even worse: What was our Western answer to this? All donor-funded projects actually abandoned the vital branch of well drilling. The last German funded well was drilled in 1999(17). Not a single well ever since, not even planning or envisaging an additional water source. Instead, funds were re-allocated to other water projects – capacity building (dry capacities), network maintenance (without water in the networks!), waste water treatment (another Israeli demand since Oslo) even water saving awareness (sic!). In other words: We make sure that no additional drop can ever find the occupied Palestinian population. Our German development Minister Niebel even pro-actively defended this new water project logic, by explicitly warning from “additional raw water production” from allegedly “already over-used and partially contaminated aquifers” – all that of course “in accordance with the guiding principle of Sustainable Water Resource Management (IWRM)(18). We have no idea what Niebel is referring here to. Probably, he doesn’t know, maybe he confuses the West Bank with Gaza, surely he doesn’t care. Because just like all his colleagues before and after – he simply expresses the official government line. No pressure on Israel! Palestinian water needs are sacrificed on the altar of good relations with Israel. Needless to stress that this is not solely the German attitude but that of the entire free and democratic Western world – its ruling classes at least.
As for the current so-called water crisis: We as donors are now busy to generously fund the anachronistic water tankering in the cut-off Palestinian towns and cities. The guiding principle of sustainable development in the year 2016! Adapting to and stabilising the status-quo of occupation and water-apartheid…
Clemens Messerschmid is a German hydrogeologist, working as Free-Lancer and in international water projects in the oPt for the past 20 years
The shortened version of this interview is published on Electronic Intifada
1 – In the Oslo-period, according to official Israeli figures, between 5 and 8 million cubic metres of water left the lake annually, into the lower part of the Jordan River; out of a natural amount of over600 mcm/a.
2 – For example, irrigation was only permitted during the day hours (when evaporation is incomparably higher), in order to control the measly amounts, Palestinians could apply on their fields. Only 4% of Palestinian agriculture is irrigated anyway – guess why…
3 – the typical slight oscillations like in most countries, including Israel
4 – Compare these 60mcm to the far above 600mcm, the West Bank has a annual natural groundwater recharge and to the 2000mcm Israel annually consumes – most of which of course from occupied and annexed territories… 1967 was the second “water miracle” of Israel, the first was 1948/49…
5 – Where the army’s Civil Administration sits
6 – Amira Hass, as above http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.729777
7 – Double green occupation, as I like to call them: IDF-green in combination with the green of the Israeli nature reserves
8 – for a foreigner like me, working in local water projects
9 – Palestinians were not even allowed to DISCUSS new wells in the Western basin. In such cases meetings were simply cancelled by Israel. Read the World Bank report and Jan Selby.
10 – The water sales have thus expanded beyond what was agreed in Oslo, as Israel always stresses. But compare the figures: Water sales have increased by another slightly over 100% beyond the interim agreement, while the interim phase – the peace process – has expanded by 300% beyond its expiration date, 1999.
11 – This surplus of course will shrink if Israel implements its Water Master Plan 2050, which envisages bizarre rises of per-capita consumption (for Israelis)
12 – This is a special feature of water among the other ‘core issues’ of Final Status Negotiations (Jerusalem, borders, land, settlements); in water, the best possible outcome for Israel is preservation of the status-quo.
13 – To the contrary – an overall not very large amount of some estimated 37mcm/a of unfortunately naturally brackish water flow from the NW Negev into Gaza, as lateral groundwater inflow.
14 – Gaza is a confined, relatively dry (semi-arid) and densely populated strip of land; it actually has the size and population of a typical city on planet Earth, currently a density between that of Madrid and London, much less than Manhattan. But unlike ANY other city on the globe, it receives no water from outside the “city”-perimeter, from its rural hinterland. Ask Manhattan or Madrid or London in absence of the Thames) to supply itself – a recipe for disaster.
15 – One exception here is Nablus, which managed to at least to drill some powerful wells and thus at least did not further drop in per-capita supplies.
16 – Unlike in the Western Aquifer, some additional wells were vaguely promised in the Eastern aquifer. We have not been able to implement even a fraction of the promised quantities in the 20-odd years since.
17 – This well, Ein Samia # 6, was also the one and only additional, productive new well drilled in the entire Ramallah governorate – by and for the local water department of Ramallah / El-Bireh “Jerusalem Water Undertaking” (JWU).
18 – In German